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The ancient Corps of the Royal Carabinieri...
The ancient Corps of the Royal Carabinieri was instituted in Turin by the King of Sardinia, Vittorio Emanuel l by Royal Warrant on 13th July, 1814. It was given the dual function of national defense, in first position with respect to other branches of the Armed Forces, and policing with special powers and prerogatives.
The Carabinieri Force was issued with a distinctive uniform in dark blue with silver braid around the collar and cuffs, edges trimmed in scarlet and epaulets in silver, with white fringes for the mounted division and light blue for infantry. The characteristic hat with two points was popularly known as the “lucerna”. On 24th January, 1861 the Force was appointed “First Force” of the newly founded national military organization, rising to the status of Armed Force on 31st March, 2000.
This privileged position, as well as the presence of Carabinieri in every part of the country, even in the smallest village, were and still are the most significant characteristics of the Institution.
As a result of the particular combination of Armed Forces and Police Authority, the Carabinieri  Force has the following responsibilities:
a. Military force:
- defense of the nation, its institutions and resources in the case of a national disaster;
- participation in military operations in Italy and abroad, policing operations abroad, and through  international mandates and agreements, reconstruction of local police forces in areas where peacekeeping forces are present;
- exclusive function of security and military police for the Armed Forces;
- functions of judicial military police for Military Justice bodies;
- the security of Italian diplomatic institutions including military institutions abroad;
- assistance to military personnel involved in institutional activities in the national territory;
  mobilization services;
b. Police structure:
- functions of judicial and public order and security policing;
- national civilian protection structure guaranteeing continuity of service in disaster areas and aid to the local population.